Keyword research is the foundation of all SEO. If you want search engine traffic, you need to find out what terms people are using to find information and products in your industry. These days concept targeting may be more important, but classic keyword-based optimization isn’t dead.
The basic process of keyword research is to find the terms people are searching for in your industry, and then optimize your content for said terms. You can map pages on your site to the keywords, or do keyword research for new pages as you publish them.
The general idea of keyword research is simple, but the topic is quite deep and complex. Check out the reading materials below to learn more and develop your own keyword research process.